Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, More from the National Constitution Center, © Copyright 2021 National Constitution Center, The Promise and the Thwarting of Reconstruction, 14th Amendment at 150: Debating the 14th Amendment, On this day, Congress approved the 14th Amendment. Throughout history, the Supreme Court has narrowly interpreted which rights are provided through Article IV. Notably, the Supreme Court has always narrowly construed the privileges and immunities clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, often ruling that the clause doesn't prevent business discrimination. As originally written and ratified, the Bill of Rights protected against abuses by the federal government, not—as was the case in each of the canonical decisions listed above—against abuses by state and local governments. The literally words stated in the Clause are "the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states". That conclusion is not easy to derive from the text, however, because it requires that there be rights of national citizenship that, but for the Clause, would not limit the states. 80, this was “the basis of the Union.” The clause forges a sense of national citizenship by requiring each state to treat the citizens of other states as citizens rather than aliens. Translations in context of "privileges and immunities" in English-French from Reverso Context: privileges and immunities of the united nations, the privileges and immunities of the united, the convention on the privileges and immunities, immunities and privileges, the protocol on the privileges and immunities For example, Article I provides that “Congress shall have power to regulate commerce among the several states.” The Court has held that state regulations that discriminate against interstate commerce violate this clause in the absence of congressional authorization. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Whether that is so depends on the content of national citizenship, a category referred to but not created by the Fourteenth Amendment. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. The second privileges and immunities clause is included in a constitutional amendment. The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights. Some of the rights that are protected include the right to acquire and possess property, the right to bring and defend actions in a court of law, and the right to receive the same tax treatment as the citizens of the taxing state. However, instead of the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Supreme Court has looked to the Due Process Clause to guarantee new implied fundamental rights and to house the earlier amendments. 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